Saturday, March 5, 2016

Native American Solutrean , Haplo group X, Rhesus Negative Connection

 The Solutrean theory is highly controversial and has been highly refuted by archaeologists who back the "out of Asia" theory. These archaeologists believe that the paleolithic people of North America came solely from Asia by crossing the Bering Straights via a land bridge that was in existence various times during the Pleistocene ice age. During that period a lot of earths water was frozen in ice sheets covering North America and Europe. This caused the sea levels to drop significantly, and caused dry beds to be exposed. These dry beds connected Siberia and Alaska.

Beringia during the Pleistocene ice age.

Present day Beringia.
 The Solutrean theory is a hypothesis that the America's was also settled by people from Europe and that these people may have been the earliest settlers of the America's. The ice age Europeans may have crossed the North Atlantic ocean along the edge of pack ice that extended from the coast of France to North America.

I am a firm believer in this theory because it shows how certain indigenous tribes of the America's carry the rhesus negative blood factor. In this article I will show you the facts that prove early European people brought the rhesus Negative factor to the America's.

Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institute is a highly known advocate of the Solutrean theory. Stanford noted during a PBS interview that during the ice age a northern route to the America's was possible. He said that ice age fisherman and hunters sailed the Atlantic in tiny boats made of animal skins 18,000 years ago and colonised the eastern U.S. "The gap between Europe and America was greatly reduced." Stanford said "It could be feasible for fishermen, whale, and seal hunters to sail around the southern rim of the packs of sea ice that covered the North Atlantic and reach land around the banks of Newfoundland." According to Stanford "Such a journey would represent one of the most astonishing migrations ever undertaken - the earth wastelands blasted by storms and blizzards"

Although the weather would be unpredictable such a theory is still possible. Much of the planets water was frozen solid away in ice caps and glaciers, which would've caused sea levels to be substantially lower then today's. The continental shelf would've been exposed so the ocean gap between the continents would not have been as wide. The European Solutreans could fish and hunt seals for food and use pack ice for fresh drinking water. When they weren't sailing they could use their boat as a form of shelter.

This map depicts how the ice formed a bridge from Europe to America.

 Stanford's theory is based on archaeological discoveries that indicate ancient American people were culturally far more similar to the stone age people of France, Spain, and Ireland than the Asian people whom scientists had thought to be the only prehistoric settlers of North America.

I believe that there were two different groups of people who made separate migration to North America. I believe prehistoric people of Europe travelled over Atlantic ocean via an ice bridge, entered North America on the northern coast of North America.

The ancient remains found in North America seem to back the theory of two different groups of people making separate migrations.

The skull of a 15 year girl known as "Minnesota Woman" has distinctly European features. Minnesota Woman has-been dated to be anywhere from 15,000 to 20,000 years old. She was found near a glacier Lake Pelican in Minnesota. The lake was formed near the end of the ice age.

 Another similar skeleton of a 26 year old woman, who has been named Peñon woman was found near the edge of prehistoric Lake Texcoco which once existed in the valley of Mexico. Her remains were dated at 13,000 years old by Liverpool's John Moores University and Oxford's Research Laboratory of Archaeology. When Dr. Silvia Gonzalez an archaeologist of John Morres University and the leader of the research team examined Peñon Woman's remains she was intrigued by her skull because of its European features. Dr. Gonzalez found the skull to be "dolichocephalic"; that is long and narrow, like those of today's Western Europeans.  Today's native Americans have short and wide skulls like the Mongols of Asia.

A visual comparison of typical Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid skulls.
 Kennewick man is yet another example of a Paleolithic American remains found to have distinct European features. Kennewick man was found on the bank of the Columbia river in Kennewick, Washington, on July 28, 1996. Kennewick man also known as " The Ancient One" is one of the most complete Paleolithic skeletons ever found. Radiocarbon tests on the bones have shown them to be approximately 9000 years old.

The results of a genetic investigation published in 2015 pointed toward a Native America ancestry. He was found to be closely related to the Coleville tribe in northeast Washington. Due to the fact Kennewick man lived in North America it would only make sense that he would have future ancestors in North America. What I find intriguing is even though Kennewick man and the Coleville tribe share DNA, the Coleville tribe contain Asian like pieces of DNA not found in Kennewick man. If Kennewick man does not have Asian DNA and has European features wouldn't that lead you to believe Kennewick man is a descendant of the European Solutreans?! Scientists studied the chemical composition of Kennewick man's skeleton, they concluded that he lived on a coast line for much of his life. Which would make you think of a Solutrean lifestyle.

 However this man got to Kennewick is anyone's guess. One thing that is for sure the ancient community of Kennewick embraced him; his body was buried carefully after he died at the approximate age of 40. He was found to have a spear lodged in his pelvic bone. The wound hadn't been fatal because he lived for a long while with the spear lodged inside of him. Kennewick man was most likely a skilled hunter and warrior. His culture must of had a general understanding of medical care in order for him to survive such a wound.

The facial reconstruction of Kennewick man. 

I believe Kennewick man was a descendant of the European Solutreans. If proper care would've been taken during and after his discovery the world would know with out a doubt that Ancient Europeans travelled the perilous journey to the New World with total certainty. I find it sad that the hate for Europeans is so strong that it gets in the way of the truth. 
 The controversy surrounding Kennewick that lead to the 9 year court battle for knowledge of the ancient past is an injustice to the people of the world and a sad display of justice in the United States.
 Everything that could be done to sabotage the study of Kennewick man had been done. Scientists recommended that the sediment layer where Kennewick man was discovered be extensively studied, the US Army Corps of Engineers buried the site with 2 million pounds of dirt and rocks. Due to this act of government vandalism efforts to determine if there are other artifacts at the site, and help determine the relationship between the remains and the culture of Paleolithic people has been hindered. USACE consulted extensively with the American Natives about the plan to bury the discovery site but did not bring it to the attention of the scientists. The scientists heard a rumour about the plan and contacted the USACE repeatedly but they never heard anything back until the plan to bury the discovery site was finalised. The USACE buried the site despite the outcry from concerned citizens and members from congress who were opposed to the "project". The House of Representatives and the Senate were in the process of passing legislation that would prohibit the USACE's scheme. This only made the USACE hurry to complete the project before the legislation was passed.

 Not only was the discovery site destroyed by the USACE, they allowed the Native Americans to place ceder branches and other items into the box containing Kennewick mans remains, threatening further contamination to the ancient remains. If DNA from these Native Americans came into contact with Kennewick man it could overwhelm the ancient DNA and sabotage any future genetic testing. Both of Kennewick mans femurs disappeared while in government custody. These two bones are second in importance next to the skull  for determining relatedness to modern people. At every stage of the court case the Native Americans were consulted regarding their desires, and usually they were accommodated, but the scientists never were. Limited study of Kennewick man was permitted by scientists chosen by the government and the Natives. Tax payer money funded the study but the findings were never released to the public, although the Natives were allowed to see the findings.
In 2005 senator John McCain passed legislation entitled "Native American Omnibus Act of 2005" Section 108 of that bill deemed that any Native American graves found all artifacts and remains go directly to the Native Americans before any scientific testing can be done. This legislation attempts to prevent researchers from studying prehistoric archaeological remains, which gives credence to the theory that contemporary Native Americans were not the first or only people living in the New World during the ice age.

I believe that all the efforts trying to hide the truth about the European Solutreans who crossed over the ice packs has all been in vain! There are a few genetic traits that are found exclusively and abundantly in the people of Spain, France, and Ireland, the countries where the Solutreans originated before coming to North America
 and those traits are the Rhesus Negative factor and haplogroup X! The oldest known people of Europe are the Basques of Spain and France. They have the highest frequency of Rhesus Negative blood. I believe the Basques are modern day ancestors of the Solutreans who lived in that area during the ice age. I believe that some Solutreans decided to leave their home land of Europe and migrate over the the Atlantic ocean using the ice bridge. These Solutreans brought the Rhesus negative blood line and the haplogroup X mitochondrial DNA with them to the America's. There are a few physical traits that go hand in hand with Rhesus negative blood and those traits are pale skin with freckles and red hair.

 A prime example of ancient red haired people in North America are the Lovelock Cave Mummies. Lovelock Cave is found 80 miles northeast of Reno, Nevada. In 1911 guano miners found numerous sets of remains naturally mummified under 4 feet of bat guano. The remains were carefully documented. While examining the remains people were surprised to find several of the mummies had red hair. They also found the mummies were of tall stature, which is not at all like the contemporary Native Americans of today. Photographs of the skulls show a close resemblance to Kennewick man. All the skulls of Lovelock Cave show Caucasoid features. Several modern day Native American tribes have legends of pale skinned and/or red haired people's. In fact the Paiutes, a tribe native to Nevada, have a legend about exterminating an enemy tribe of red haired people.

Lovelock Cave skulls. Notice the distinct Caucasoid features.

 We may not have all the information that we should but if we look at everything we do know a picture will emerge! Asian DNA has 4 different haplogroups, which are A, B, C, and D. Native Americans share these four haplogroups plus one extra, haplo group X. Haplogroup X is found primarily in Europeans. Researchers claim that haplogroup X was introduced to the Native American gene pool several thousands of years ago and can not be the result of interbreeding with any recent European groups such as the Vikings.

I'm going to go further into detail about haplogroup X so that you the reader can have a firm understanding of how haplogroup X and the rhesus negative factor correlate. I also want to share how the rhesus factor was introduced into the indigenous American gene pool by Europeans.

Map 1: Rhesus negative frequency in Europe.
Map 2: Haplo group X frequency in Europe.
When you compare map 1 and 2 you can see that there is a correlation between the demographics of rhesus negative and haplogroup X.

Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA. The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged originally from haplogroup N, and subsequently further diverged about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago to give rise to two sub-groups, X1 and X2. Haplogroup X accounts for 2% of the overall European population. Just as haplogroup X is rare so is the rhesus negative blood type, only 15% of the European population has this blood type. Passing on rhesus negative blood is far eaiser then passing on mtDNA. In order for mitochondrial DNA to be passed on, the direct line from mother to daughter can not be broken. Unlike the rhesus negative factor which can be passed from both the mother and father to the child. Haplogroup X appears to have had an immense population expansion and dispersal around and soon after the last ice age, about 21,000 years ago. It is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus Mountains and Mediterranean Europe, which includes the countries of Spain, southern France, Portugal, the Italian peninsula and Greece. Haplogroup X is somewhat less common in the rest of Europe. Other particular concentrations of this haplogroup appear in Georgia (8%), the Orkney Islands off Scotland (7%) and amongst the Israeli Druze (26%). Haplogroup X is found in some Native Americans. Although it occurs in much lower frequencies and only makes up 3% of the total indigenous population. It is a major haplogroup for northeastern North American Natives, where among the Algonquin tribe it makes up 23% of mtDNA types. It is also present in lesser percentages to the west and south of this area; in the North American Sioux (15%), the Nuu-Chan-Nulth (11-13%), the Navajo (7%) and the Yakima (5%), and in South America among the Yanomi people(12%) in 8 villages in Roraima in northern Brazil.

 I believe that haplogroup X correlate with rhesus negative blood. I believe that if you were to look at the Native Americans with this haplogroup you will more than likely find rhesus negative blood. I believe that the Solutreans brought these genetic characteristics with them to the New World. These Solutreans began by colonising the eastern North American coastal lands, then began spreading out. The  European Solutreans were the first Americans by 7000 years. Although the Solutreans were the first to arrive they probably did not migrate in large numbers. They also only had a 4500 year window of opportunity to migrate, compared to the 15,000 year window of opportunity the early Asians had.  It's very possible the shear numbers of the early Asians wiped out the early Europeans. Genetics has given us a clue to what may have happened between the different groups of early Americans. It's an age old fact that when a population conquers another population, the males of the winning people take wives of the conquered people. That is most likely why haplogroup X is still present in modern day Native Americans. Haplogroup X is mitochondrial DNA., the DNA that is passed from mother to child, and is passed from mother to daughter with very little change in mutation through the generations. So it seems that the early Europeans assimilated with the early Asians. When these two groups merged they gave birth to the Clovis era. As time went by a new distinct population of people became known as today's indigenous North Americans.